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veterinary laparoscopic minimally invasive surgery

Released on May. 18, 2022

veterinary laparoscopic is introduced into the body cavity through a small incision by introducing an optical mirror (laparoscope) and specialized instruments and placed in a specific location for surgery. Video images are captured by an endoscopic camera and displayed on a medical monitor for simultaneous viewing by the surgical team during the procedure. For most laparoscopic procedures, filling the abdomen with carbon dioxide increases the working space and allows manipulation of surgical instruments during the procedure. Common veterinary laparoscopic minimally invasive surgeries include: laparoscopic oophorectomy, laparoscopic cryptorchiectomy, laparoscopic assisted gastrofixation, laparoscopic liver biopsy, etc.

1. Laparoscopic oophorectomy

Laparoscopic oophorectomy can result in earlier recovery of function and less postoperative pain than traditional open oophorectomy.

After placement of 2-3 ports and inflation of the abdomen, the patient (dorsal recumbent position) is rolled or tilted to one side to identify the contralateral uterine horn. Grasp the cephalic end of the uterine horn and pull back ventrally to expose the ovary. Sutures are placed through the ovarian ligaments and sutured through the abdomen to suspend the ovary from the ventral sidewall. The ovarian vessels were closed, and the suspended ovaries and ligaments were transected to separate the ovaries. The patient is flipped to the other side and the procedure is repeated for the other ovary.

2. Laparoscopic cryptorchidectomy

Laparoscopic-assisted cryptorchidectomy can better display the entire tail and abdomen, so it can identify the precise location of the testis in the abdominal cavity, and the surgical trauma is less than the traditional gluteal incision.

After the camera is placed and the abdomen is inflated, the patient is placed supine, the tail and abdomen are explored, and the position of the testis is determined. A second port is placed for easier access to the testicle. Grasp the testicle and remove it from the abdomen through the instrument port. The pedicle and vas deferens were double ligated using conventional techniques, and the ligated pedicle was returned to the abdomen. If necessary, the abdomen is reinflated and the operation is repeated for the contralateral testis. Check the ligature for adequate hemostasis and routinely close the port incision.

3. Laparoscopic-assisted gastrofixation

Laparoscopic-assisted gastrofixation requires a smaller incision and can reduce surgical trauma compared with traditional open surgery.

After placing the two ports, the abdomen is inflated, the patient lies supine, grasps the pyloric antrum between the greater and lesser curvature of the stomach, and lifts the gastric antrum to the right abdominal wall. The incision adjacent to the port was enlarged, the pyloric antrum was removed from the abdomen through the incision, and two sutures were placed around the proposed gastric fixation point to stabilize the stomach and maintain exposure. An incision is then made in the pyloric antrum, similar in position to a conventional gastrostomy incision. Each edge of the gastric serosal muscle incision is simply sutured to the transverse abdominis muscle using a slow-absorbing suture material. The internal and external obliques were repositioned at the gastric fixation site using a simple continuous pattern, followed by routine closure of the subcutaneous tissue and skin.

After the abdominal wall is closed, inflation is re-established and the gastric fixation site is checked for correct positioning before routine closure of the camera port point.

4. Laparoscopic liver biopsy

Compared with traditional open surgery, laparoscopic liver biopsy is less invasive and has a lower complication rate. Laparoscopic cup forceps were used to take specimens for histopathological diagnosis.

After placement of 2 ports and abdominal inflation, the liver is examined to identify lesions or lobes. Grasp the lesion and hold for 15 seconds before taking the biopsy sample. The biopsy site should be monitored for excessive bleeding, and the port incision should be routinely closed after adequate hemostasis. The lateral decubitus position hinders the visibility of the subordinate lobes, but does not prevent biopsy.

Veterinary laparoscopy can directly observe abdominal organs such as liver, gallbladder, pancreas, ovary, uterus, gastrointestinal surface, etc. Therefore, most abdominal organ diseases can be diagnosed by laparoscopy; laparoscopy can also evaluate the abdomen Trauma, diagnosis of abdominal tumors, biopsy, etc.